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Cetacean bycatch - Multiservice Multiplexer manufacturer - Optical Ethernet Switch

Bycatch is increasing

A Dall's Porpoise caught in a fishing net

Most of the world cetacean bycatch occurs in gillnet fisheries. The mean annual bycatch in the U.S. alone from 19901999 was 6,215 marine mammals, with dolphins and porpoises being the primary cetaceans caught in gillnets. A study by Read et al. estimated global bycatch through observation of U.S. fisheries and came to the conclusion that an annual estimate of 653,365 marine mammals, comprising 307,753 cetaceans and 345,611 pinnipeds were caught from 19901994.

While gillnets are a principal concern, other types of nets also pose a problem: trawl nets, purse seines, beach seines, longline gear, and driftnets. Driftnets are known for high rates of bycatch and they affect all cetaceans and other marine species. They are fatal for small toothed whales (Odontocetes) and sperm whales, as well as other marine mammals and fish such as sharks, sea birds and sea turtles. Many fisheries routinely use driftnets exceeding the EU size limit of 2.5 km/boat. This illegal drift-netting is a major issue, especially in important feeding and breeding grounds for cetaceans.

Cetaceans at risk

Bycatch is recognized as a primary threat to all cetaceans. The following cetaceans are at high risk for entanglement in gillnets:

Atlantic humpback dolphins

The Atlantic humpback dolphin (Sousa teuszii) is endemic to West Africa. Several stocks have been identified with numbers ranging from tens to a few hundred. Abundance estimates are lacking. Gaps in the species range and hence distribution is evident. Bycatch is only documented in a few West African countries. Surveys and evaluations need to be conducted to determine the presence/ absence of humpback dolphins in their historical range. Conservation measures need to be implemented to save this species. Because many people live off the sea, it is not feasible to have complete gillnet closures. Some areas may be designated as off-limits to gillnet fisheries. Eco-tourism may be implemented successfully because of high species diversity.

Baleen whales

North Atlantic Right Whale mother and calf.

Baleen whales, Mysticeti, are often taken in gill-nets and in fisheries that use vertical lines to mark traps and pots. Large cetaceans such as humpback and right whales may carry off gear after entanglement. This explains the large scars borne by whales along the U.S. Atlantic coast. Analyses show that 50-70% of Gulf of Maine humpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae, and North Atlantic Right Whale, Eubalaena glacialis, have been entangled at least once in their lifetime. The north Atlantic right whale is one of the most endangered large cetaceans and only 300-350 individuals remain. Minke Whales, Balaenoptera acutorostrata, are also at risk.

Burmeister porpoises

The Burmeister's porpoise (Phocoena spinipinnis) is one of three cetaceans that are most often bycaught in Peru and Chile. Several thousand porpoises are caught each year in Peru alone. Bycatch is a frequent occurrence for this species because of the inability to detect them in the water. Surveys have shown that bycatch remains a concern in that area today and it is unknown whether or not the population is declining. Data, conservation measures and awareness are lacking. These porpoises are cryptic making surveying a challenge . It is also difficult to estimate bycatch because the sale of porpoise meat is no longer available at markets.

Commerson dolphins

A Commerson's Dolphin in an aquarium.

The expanding trawl fisheries devastated the Commerson's dolphin (Cephalorhynchus commersonii) populations in Patagonia. Trawl fisheries greatly expanded for twenty years until they crashed in 1997. Pelagic squid fisheries took over which use pelagic trawls that are harmful to dusky, short-beaked common dolphins, and Commerson dolphins. There are approximately 21,000 Commerson dolphins remaining today. Two stocks have been identified in the population but genetic information and bycatch levels are unknown. With anchovy fisheries expanding, it is imperative to assess the Commerson dolphin population before these fisheries grow. The seasonal operation of in-shore gillnet fisheries are known to involve bycatch of cetaceans. Presently, there are no known estimates of gillnet bycatch. The bycatch problem in Argentina is political in nature. Improvements in fishing technology, awareness, and a large scale survey of Commerson dolphin populations and the impact of bycatch is essential.

La Plata dolphins

The La Plata or Franciscana dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei) is the most threatened small cetacean in the southwest Atlantic Ocean due to bycatch. They are only found in the coastal waters of Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay. This species has been divided into four ranges (FMU: Franciscana Management Units) for management and conservation purposes. These populations are genetically different. Mortality rates are 1.6% for FMU 4 and 3.3% for FMU 3 but it is unknown whether these estimates are accurate. Aerial surveys have proven inconclusive so far as to the population numbers of franciscanas. To rectify this situation, more surveys are needed as well as political commitment, awareness campaigns and bycatch mitigation techniques.

Harbour porpoises

There is substantial incidental catches in fishing operations. Often, the Harbour Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) is killed by incidental by-catch (10, 11, 12). Gillnets pose a serious threat to the harbour porpoise as they are extremely susceptible to entanglement. A study by Caswell et al. in the western North Atlantic combined the mean annual rate of increase of the harbour porpoise with the uncertainty of incidental mortality and population size. It was found that the incidental mortality exceeds critical values and therefore by-catch is a significant threat to the harbour porpoise. Harbour porpoises become entangled in nets due to their inability to detect the nets before collision. In 2001, 80 harbour porpoises were killed in salmon gillnet fisheries in British Columbia, Canada.

Hector's and Maui's dolphins

Hector's dolphins have a unique rounded dorsal fin.

In New Zealand, these dolphins have a high rate of entanglement. Hector's dolphin (Cephalorhynchus hectori) is endemic to the coastal waters New Zealand and there are about 7,400 in abundance. A small population of Hector dolphins is isolated on the west coast of the island and have been declared a subspecies called Maui's Dolphin. Maui's dolphins (Cephalofhynchus hectori maui) are often caught in set nets and pair trawlers resulting in less than 100 left in the wild. For protection, a section of the dolphin range on the west coast has been closed to gillnet fisheries.

Indo-Pacific humpback and bottlenose dolphins

Drift and bottom-set gillnets are the biggest conservation threat to these dolphins in the Indian Ocean. There have only been assessments in some areas such as Zanzibar. Hunting up until 1996 reduced the population and contributed to their decline. Now hunting has been replaced with eco-tourism. It was estimated in 2001 that there are 161 bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus)] and 71 Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin (Sousa chinensis) that are left based on photo-identification mark-recapture techniques. A study on bycatch revealed over 160 incidences of bycatch since 2000. Approximately 30% of bycatch is in drift and bottom-set gillnets. Mortality is about 8% and 5.6% for bottlenose and humpback dolphins respectfully . The mitigation of bycatch is imperative for these species and eco-tourism.

Irrawaddy dolphins

Based on a survey in 2001, fewer than 70 Irrawaddy dolphins (Orcaella brevirostris) left in the upper region of the Malampaya Sound in the Philippines and 69 individuals in the Mekong River. They have been severely impacted by lift nets, and crab gear and they are critically endangered. It is estimated that mortality from bycatch may be greater than 4.5% in Malampaya Sound and 5.8% in the Mekong River. The population is declining dramatically. Current bycatch levels are unsustainable and bycatch reduction measures as well as long-term systematic monitoring are urgently required. The elimination of gillnets from areas of high use is needed and economic incentives need to be provided to the local people.

Spinner and Fraser dolphins

Spinner dolphins.

In the Philippines, tuna driftnet fisheries have a substantial impact on the populations. One tuna fishery alone kills 400 Spinner Dolphin (Stenella longirostris) and Fraser's dolphins (Lagenodelphis hosei) each year. Round-haul nets are an even greater concern with a bycatch of up to 3000 dolphins per year. Dolphins that are bycaught often end up as shark bait for longline fisheries. There is not enough data to conclude total bycatch for the Philippines. Initial assessment indicates that bycatch is not sustainable. Monitoring of dolphin populations and fisheries is urgently needed.

Yangtze River dolphins and finless porpoises

Illustration of a Baiji dolphin.

The Yangtze River or Baiji dolphin (Lipotes vexillifer) is the most endangered cetacean and is only found in the Yangtze River, China. A survey conducted in 1997 found only thirteen dolphins. The Yangtze River finless porpoise (Neophocaena phocaenoides asiaeorientalis) also lives in the Yangtze River. Abundance has declined and there are fewer than 2000 dolphins left. This may be due, in part, to the construction of the Three Gorges Dam which covers a significant amount of the dolphin habitat. Both species are often subject to entanglement in gillnets.

Vaquita

The vaquita (Phocoena sinus) is highly endangered and is endemic to the upper Gulf of California, Mexico. They are killed in both gillnets and trawl nets from commercial and artisanal fishing. There are presently less than 600 vaquitas left in the Gulf of California.

Mitigating bycatch

Acoustic deterrent devices

The use of acoustic alarms to mitigate by-catch and also to protect aquaculture sites has been proposed but has advantages and risks associated with the alarms. Acoustic deterrent devices, or pingers, have reduced the number of cetaceans caught in gill nets. Harbour porpoises have been effectively excluded from bottom-set gill nets during many experiments for instance in the Gulf of Maine , along the Olympic Peninsula, in the Bay of Fundy, and in the North Sea. All of these studies show up to a 90% decrease in harbour porpoise bycatch. Pingers work because they produce a sound that is aversive (20; 15). There has been a recent re-evaluation of the potential of pingers and their use in other fisheries due to their growing success. An experiment on the California drift gill net fishery demonstrated how acoustic pingers reduce marine mammal bycatch. It was shown that bycatch was significantly reduced for common dolphins and sea lions. Bycatch rates were also lower for other cetacean species like the Northern right whale dolphin, Pacific white-sided dolphin, Risso dolphin and Dall's Porpoise. It is agreed upon that the more pingers on a net, the less bycatch. There was a 12-fold decrease in common dolphin entanglement using a net with 40 pingers. However, the widespread use of pingers along coastlines effectively excludes cetaceans such as porpoises from prime habitat and resources. Cetaceans which are extremely sensitive to noise are effectively being driven from their preferred coastal habitats by the use of acoustic devices. In poorer quality habitat, harbour porpoises are subjected to increased competition for resources. This situation is recognized as range contraction which can be a result of climate change, anthropogenic activity, or population decline. Large scale range contractions are considered indicative of impending extinction. A similar form of deterrent is noise pollution originating from vessel traffic.

Barium sulfate

A promising gillnet that is effective in reducing bycatch for harbor porpoises contains barium sulfate. These nets are detected at a greater distance than conventional nets because the barium sulfate reflects the echolocation signal, and also renders the nets more visible. Barium sulfate makes the nets stiffer if it is added at high concentration. All three factors: echo reflectivity, stiffness, and visibility may be important in reducing bycatch. Fish takes in the Bay of Fundy were normal, except for haddock takes, which were down by 3-5%. The advantage of this approach is that it is passive and thus does not require batteries, and there is no inner bell effect. The potential advantage of these nets is greatest in the artisanal fishery. NOAA would like further testing to verify the effectiveness of the nets.

Fishing regulations and management

Management and regulation are lacking in many fisheries today. Management measures are urgently needed to monitor fisheries (and illegal fisheries) to protect cetaceans. Efforts to document bycatch should focus on gill-net fisheries because cetaceans are more likely to be caught in gill-nets. Conservation efforts should be directed to areas where marine mammal bycatch is high but where no infrastructure exists to assess the impact. There is a lack of reporting on a global scale of cetacean bycatch.

In the U.S. the Marine Mammal Protection Act prohibits the use and sale of marine mammals captured by fisheries. Similar legislation prohibits the use and sale of marine mammals in other countries. A marine mammal mortality monitoring program for commercial fisheries occurs in the U.S. where ake Reduction Teams observe the extent of bycatch and then formulate strategies to reduce bycatch and Take Reduction Plans are put into place.

Temporary closure

Temporary closure of fisheries during the short period of the year when cetaceans are migrating through the area would decrease bycatch significantly.

Observers on boat

Observers on boats should be present on fishing vessels to spot cetaceans in the water so that they can be avoided.

Other Ways of Mitigating Bycatch

Choose only fish that are caught using cetacean friendly fishing gear.

Buy food that has a olphin safe label.

Read The sustainable seafood guide for information on seafood that is produced sustainably.

Volunteer locally.

Raise awareness for cetacean bycatch.

Fish caught in nets that are designed not to harm dolphins is marketed as "dolphin safe", though this label may not be truly indicative of the harm done to dolphins in that fishery.

Notes

^ Alverson et al. (1994)

^ Demaster et al. (2001)

^ a b c d e f g h i Read et al. (2006)

^ Silvani et al. (1999)

^ Miragliuolo et al. (2002)

^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Reeves et al. (2005)

^ Knowlton (2003)

^ a b c d e f g WWF (2004)

^ Hammond et al. (2002)

^ Jefferson & Curry (1994)

^ a b Caswell et al. (1998)

^ Kastelein et al. (1999)

^ Kraus et al. (1997)

^ Gearin et al. (2000)

^ Trippel et al. (2003)

^ Larsen (1997)

^ Reeves et al. (1996)

^ a b Barlow & Cameron (2003)

^ a b Culik (2001)

^ Boughton et al. (2005)

^ Mooney et al (2004)

^ Mooney et al (2007)

^ Trippel et al (2008)

^ Murray et al.(2000)

^ Animal Freedom (2008)

References

Alverson, DL, Freeburg, MH, Murawski, SA and JG Pope (1994). A global assessment of fisheries bycatch and discards. Fisheries Technical Paper. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome. 339 pp.

Animal Freedom (2008) Cetacean Bycatch

Barlow, J & Cameron, GA (2003). Field experiments show that acoustic pingers reduce marine mammal bycatch in the Californian drift gill net fishery. Marine Mammal Science. 19: 265-283.

Boughton, DA, Fish, H, Pipal, K, Goin, J, Watson, F, Casagrande, J, and M Stoecker (2005). Contraction of the southern range limit for anadromous Oncorhynchus mykiss. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS. NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-380. U.S. Department of Commerce.

Caswell, H, Brault, S, Read, AJ, and TD Smith (1998). Harbour porpoise and fisheries: an uncertain analysis of incidental mortality. Ecological Applications. 8(4): 1226-1238.

Culik, BM, Koschinski, S, Tregenza, N, and GM Ellis (2001). Reactions of harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena and herring Clupea harengus to acoustic alarms. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 211: 155-260.

Demaster, DJ, Fowler, CW, Perry, SL, and ME Richlen (2001). Predation and competition: the impact of fisheries on marine mammal populations over the next one hundred years. Journal of Mammology. 82: 641-651.

Gearin, PJ, Gosho, ME, Laake, JL, Cooke, L, DeLong, R, and KM Hughes (2000). Experimental testing of acoustic alarms (pingers) to reduce bycatch of harbor porpoise, Phocoena phocoena, in the state of Washington. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management. 2:1-9.

Hammond, PS, Berggren, P, Benke, H, Borchers, DL, Collet, A, Heide-Jorgensen, MP, Heimlich, S, Hiby, AR, Leopold, MF, and N Oien (2002). Abundance of harbour porpoise and other cetaceans in the North Sea and adjacent waters. Journal of Applied Ecology. 39: 361-376.

Jefferson, TA and Curry, BE (1994). A global review of porpoise (Cetacea: Phocoenidae) mortality in gill nets. Biological Conservation. 67(2): 167-183.

Kastelein, RA, Au, WWL, and de Haan, D (1999). Detection distances of bottom-set gillnets by harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) and bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncates). Marine Environmental Research. 49(4): 359-375.

Knowlton, AR et al. (2003). Analysis of scarring on North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis): monitoring rates of entanglement interaction. Final report. Northeast Fisheries Science Center, Woods Hole, Massachusetts.

Kraus, S, Read, AJ, Solow, A, Baldwin, K, Spradlin, T, Anderson, E, and J Williamson (1997). Acoustic alarms reduce porpoise mortality. Nature. 388:525.

Larsen, F (1997). Effekten af akustiske alarmer pa bifangst as marsvin i garn. Report number 44-97 (unpublished). Available from the Danish Institute for Fisheries Research, Jaegersborgvei 64-66, DK- 2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark.

Miragliuolo, A, Mussi, B, and G Bearzi (2002). Observations of driftnetting off the island of Ischia, Italy, with indirect evidence of dolphin bycatch. European Cetacean Research. 4pp.

Mooney, TA, Nachtigall, P and Au, WWL, (2004). "Target strength of a nylon monofilament and an acoustically enhanced gillnet: predictions of biosonar detection ranges." Aquat. Mamm., 30: 220-26.

Mooney, TA, Au, WWL, Nachtigall, P, and Trippel, EA (2007). "Acoustic and stiffness properties of gillnets as they relate to marine mammal bycatch." ICES J. Mar. Sci., 64: 1324-32.

Murray, KT, Read, AJ, and AR Solow. 2000. The use of time/area closures to reduce bycatches of harbour porpoises: lessons from the Gulf of Maine sink gillnet fishery. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management. 2(2): 135-141.

Read, AJ, Drinker, P, and S Northridge (2006). Bycatch of marine mammals in the U.S. and Global Fisheries. Conservation Biology. 20(1): 163-169.

Reeves, RR, Hofman, RJ, Silber, GK, and D Wilkinson (1996). Acoustic deterrence of harmful marine mammal-fishery interactions. Proceedings of a workshop held in Seattle, Washington, 20-22 March 1996. U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA Technical Memorandum, NMFS-OPR-10 (unpublished). 70 pp. Available from the NMFS Office of Protected Resources, 1335 East/ West Highway, Silver Springs, MD. 20910, USA.

Reeves, RR, Berggren, P, Crespo, EA, Gales, N, Northridge, SP, Sciara, GND, Perrin, WF, Read, AJ, Rogan, E, Smith, BD, and KV Waerebeek (2005). Global priorities for reduction of cetacean bycatch. WWF document. 27 pp.

Silvani, L, Gazo, JM, and A Aguilar (1999). Spanish driftnet fishing and incidental catches in the western Mediterranean.'' Biological Conservation. 90: 79-85.

Trippel, EA, Strong, MB, Terhune, JM, and JD Conway (1999). "Mitigation of harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) by-catch in the gillnet fishery in the lower Bay of Fundy." Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 56: 113-123.

Trippel, EA, Holy, NL, and Shepperd, TD, (2008). "Barium sulphate modified fishing gear as a mitigative measure for cetacean incidental mortalities." J. Cetacean Res. Manage., 10(3):235246.

Further reading

Baird, RW and Guenther, TJ (1995). Account of harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) strandings and bycatches along the coast of British Columbia. Rep. Int. Whal. Commn. Special Issue. 16: 159-168.

Cox, TM, Read, AJ, Swanner, D, Urian, K and D Waples. 2004. Behavioural responses of bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, to gillnets and acoustic alarms. Biological Conservation. 115: 203-212.

Cox, TM, Read, AJ, Solow, A and N Tregenza. 2001. Will harbour porpoises (Phocoea phocoena) habituate to pingers? Journal of cetacean Research and Management. 3: 81-86.

Donovan, GP. 1994. Developments on issues relating to the incidental catches of cetaceans since 1992 and the UNCED conference. Report of the IWC (Special Issue). 15: 609-613.

Guenther, TJ et al. (1993). Cetacean strandings and entanglement in fishing gear on the west coast of Canada during 1992. IWC Document SC/45/O 4. 1-7 pp.

Guenther (1995)</ref> Guenther, TJ et al. (1995). Strandings and fishing gear entanglements of cetaceans off the west coast of Canada in 1994. IWC Document SC/47/O 6. 1-7 pp.

Hail, MA. 1998. An ecological view of the tuna-dolphin problem: impacts and trade-offs. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries. 8: 1-34.

Kuiken, T, Simpson, VR, Allchin, CR, Bennett, PM, Codd, GA, Harris, EA, Howes, GJ, Kennedy, S, Kirkwood, JK, Law, RJ, Merrett, NR and S Phillips. 1994. Mass mortality of common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) in south west England due to the incidental capture in fishing gear. The Veterinary Record. 134: 81-89.

Lopez, A, Pierce, GJ, Santos, MB, Gracia, J and A Guerra. 2003. Fishery by-catches of marine mammals in Galician waters: results from on-board observations and an interview survey of fishermen. Biological Conservation. 111: 25-40.

Morizur, Y, Berrow, SD, Tregenza, NJC, Couperus, AS and S Pouvreau. 1999. Incidental catches of marine mammals in pelagic trawl fisheries of the northeast Atlantic. Fisheries Research. 41: 297-307.

Wade, PR. 1998. Calculating limits to the allowable human-caused mortality of cetaceans and pinnipeds. Marine Mammal Science. 14: 1-37.

Zerbini, AN, and JE Kotas. 1998. A note on cetacean bycatch in pelagic driftnetting off southern Brazil. Report of the IWC. 48: 519-524.

External links

Project GLOBAL: Global Bycatch Assessment of Long-Lived Species project

European Cetacean Bycatch Campaign

Cetacean Bycatch Resource Center

WWF Species Programme (2004) Cetacean bycatch and the IWC

Sea Anglers Conservation Network press release on cetacean bycatch

Newspaper article describes an ensnared whale who seemingly thanked her rescuers

Scientists rank endangered dolphins and porpoises most in need of immediate action

A WWF Press Release about bycatch

A cetacean bycatch web page by Animal Freedom

New project will tackle whale entanglement, article by Environmental News Service

Learn about sustainable seafood and the Sustainable Seafood Guide

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Extant Cetacea species

Kingdom Animalia  Phylum Chordata  Class Mammalia  Infraclass Eutheria  Superorder Laurasiatheria  (unranked) Cetartiodactyla  (unranked) Whippomorpha

 

Suborder Mysticeti (Baleen whales)

Balaenidae

Balaena

Bowhead Whale (B. mysticetus)

Eubalaena

(Right whales)

Southern Right Whale (E. australis)  North Atlantic Right Whale (E. glacialis)  North Pacific Right Whale (E. japonica)

Balaenopteridae

(Rorquals)

Balaenoptera

Common Minke Whale (B. acutorostrata)  Antarctic Minke Whale (B. bonaerensis)  Sei Whale (B. borealis)  Bryde's Whale (B. brydei)  Pygmy Bryde's Whale (B. edeni)  Blue Whale (B. musculus)  B. omurai  Fin Whale (B. physalus)

Megaptera

Humpback Whale (M. novaeangliae)

Eschrichtiidae

Eschrichtius

Gray Whale (E. robustus)

Neobalaenidae

Caperea

Pygmy Right Whale (C. marginata)

 

Suborder Odontoceti (Toothed whales) (cont. below)

Delphinidae

(Oceanic dolphins)

Cephalorhynchus

Commerson's Dolphin (C. commersonii)  Chilean Dolphin (C. eutropia)  Haviside's Dolphin (C. heavisidii)  Hector's Dolphin (C. hectori)

Delphinus

Long-beaked Common Dolphin (D. capensis)  Short-beaked Common Dolphin (D. delphis)

Feresa

Pygmy Killer Whale (F. attenuata)

Globicephala

(Pilot whales)

Short-finned Pilot Whale (G. macrorhynchus)  Long-finned Pilot Whale (G. melas)

Grampus

Risso's Dolphin (G. griseus)

Lagenodelphis

Fraser's Dolphin (L. hosei)

Lagenorhynchus

Atlantic White-sided Dolphin (L. acutus)  White-beaked Dolphin (L. albirostris)  Peale's Dolphin (L. australis)  Hourglass Dolphin (L. cruciger)  Pacific White-sided Dolphin (L. obliquidens)  Dusky Dolphin (L. obscurus)

Lissodelphis

(Right whale dolphins)

Northern Right Whale Dolphin (L. borealis)  Southern Right Whale Dolphin (L. peronii)

Orcaella

Irrawaddy Dolphin (O. brevirostris)  Australian Snubfin Dolphin (O. heinsohni)

Orcinus

Killer Whale (O. orca)

Peponocephala

Melon-headed Whale (P. electra)

Pseudorca

False Killer Whale (P. crassidens)

Sotalia

Tucuxi (S. fluviatilis)  Costero (S. guianensis)

Sousa

Pacific Humpback Dolphin (S. chinensis)  Indian Humpback Dolphin (S. plumbea)  Atlantic Humpback Dolphin (S. teuszii)

Stenella

Pantropical Spotted Dolphin (S. attenuata)  Clymene Dolphin (S. clymene)  Striped Dolphin (S. coeruleoalba)  Atlantic Spotted Dolphin (S. frontalis)  Spinner Dolphin (S. longirostris)

Steno

Rough-toothed Dolphin (S. bredanensis)

Tursiops

Indo-Pacific Bottlenose Dolphin (T. aduncus)  Common Bottlenose Dolphin (T. truncatus)

 

Suborder Odontoceti (Toothed whales) (cont. above)

Monodontidae

Delphinapterus

Beluga (D. leucas)

Monodon

Narwhal (M. monoceros)

Phocoenidae

(Porpoises)

Neophocaena

Finless Porpoise (N. phocaeniodes)

Phocoena

Spectacled Porpoise (P. dioptrica)  Harbor Porpoise (P. phocoena)  Vaquita (P. sinus)  Burmeister's Porpoise (P. spinipinnis)

Phocoenoides

Dall's Porpoise (P. dalli)

Physeteridae

Physeter

Sperm Whale (P. macrocephalus)

Kogiidae

Kogia

Pygmy sperm whale (K. breviceps)  Dwarf sperm whale (K. simus)

Iniidae

Inia

Amazon River Dolphin (I. geoffrensis)

Lipotidae

Lipotes

Baiji (L. vexillifer)

Platanistidae

Platanista

Ganges and Indus River Dolphin (P. gangetica)

Pontoporiidae

Pontoporia

La Plata Dolphin (P. blainvillei)

Ziphidae

(Beaked whales)

Berardius

Arnoux's Beaked Whale (B. arnuxii)  Baird's Beaked Whale (B. bairdii)

Hyperoodon

Northern Bottlenose Whale (H. ampullatus)  Southern Bottlenose Whale (H. planifrons)

Indopacetus

Tropical Bottlenose Whale (I. pacificus)

Mesoplodon

(Mesoplodont

whales)

Sowerby's Beaked Whale (M. bidens)  Andrew's Beaked Whale (M. bowdoini)  Hubbs' Beaked Whale (M. carlhubbsi)  Blainville's Beaked Whale (M. densirostris)  Gervais' Beaked Whale (M. europaeus)  Ginkgo-toothed Beaked Whale (M. ginkgodens)  Gray's Beaked Whale (M. grayi)  Hector's Beaked Whale (M. hectori)  Strap-toothed Whale (M. layardii)  True's Beaked Whale (M. mirus)  Pygmy Beaked Whale (M. peruvianus)  Perrin's Beaked Whale (M. perrini)  Stejneger's Beaked Whale (M. stejnegeri)  Spade-toothed Whale (M. traversii)

Tasmacetus

Shepherd's Beaked Whale (T. sheperdi)

Ziphius

Cuvier's Beaked Whale (Z. cavirostris)

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Wild fisheries

Wild fisheries

Ocean fisheries  Forage fisheries  Krill fisheries  Kelp fisheries  Eel fisheries  Shrimp fisheries  Crab fisheries  Cod fisheries  Ocean habitats  Shoaling and schooling  Migration  Sardine run  Fish ladder  Fish screen  Water column  Marine snow  Upwelling  Humboldt current  Algal blooms  Dead zones  Fish kill

Fisheries science

Population dynamics of fisheries  Shifting baseline  Fish stock  Fish mortality  Stock assessment  Fish measurement  Fish counter  Biomass  Fisheries acoustics  Acoustic tags  GIS and aquatic science  EcoSCOPE  Age class structure  Trophic cascades  Marine biology  Aquatic ecosystems  Diversity of fish  Bioeconomics  Ecopath  Fishbase  FMAP  Census of Marine Life  Fisheries databases  Institutes  Fisheries scientists

Management

Fisheries management  Monitoring control and surveillance  Vessel monitoring system  Fishery Resources Monitoring System  Catch reporting  Fisheries observer  Illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing  Fisheries organizations

Quotas

Individual fishing quota  Minimum landing size  Incidental mortality  Discards  Bycatch  Cetacean bycatch  Turtle excluder device  Shrimp-Turtle case  EU quotas  EU MLS  Exclusive Economic Zone

Sustainability

Sustainable fisheries  Overfishing  Marine pollution  Mercury in fish  Shark finning  Environmental effects of fishing  Fisheries and climate change  Destructive fishing practices  Maximum sustainable yield  Marine Protected Area  Marine reserve  Marine conservation  Marine conservation activism  Sustainable seafood  Marine Stewardship Council  Friend of the Sea  Seafood Watch  Oceana  Sea Around Us Project  WorldFish Center  Defying Ocean's End  PROFISH  The Sunken Billions  Sea Shepherd Conservation Society  Greenpeace  End of the Line

v  d  e

Fisheries and fishing topic areas

Fisheries

Fisheries science  Wild fisheries  Oceanic habitats  Fish farming  Aquaculture  Fish diversity  Fish diseases  Fisheries management  Fishing quota  Sustainability

Fishing

Fisherman  Artisan fishing  Fishing villages  Fishing vessels  Fishing history

Industry

Commercial fishing  Processing  Products  Seafood  Marketing  Markets

Recreational

Angling  Game fishing  Fly fishing  Catch and release

Techniques

Gathering  Spearfishing  Line fishing  Netting  Trawling  Trapping  Other

Tackle

Hook  Line  Sinker  Rod  Bait  Lures  Artificial flies  Bite alarms

Locations

Fishing by country  Fishing villages  Fishing banks  Fish ponds

List of articles by topic areas  Alphabetical list of articles  Fisheries glossary

Categories: Environmental issues with fishing | Cetaceans

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Perth Shuffle Meetup - Sycko's Birthday ::SONGLIST RELEASED::

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